Video laparoscopic surgery and laser laparoscopic surgery are the latest gynecological surgical techniques. Until these procedures were made available, most gynecological surgeries required that the abdomen be opened (laparotomy). However, recent advancements in medical tools and the efforts of surgeons have eliminated many abdominal surgeries.
Diagnostic laparoscopy is the process of determining the condition and cause of the disorder, whereas surgical laparoscopy is the process of operating on the disorder, through the use of lasers and video. Some of its surgical applications are:
* ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy in the fallopian tube), ovarian cyst, uterine myoma, endometriosis, and other gynecologic problems;
* papilloma of the fallopian tubes;
* infertility due to adhesions around the fallopian tubes and the pelvic region;
* plastic surgery for the fallopian tubes (tuboplasty).
Advantages over laparotomy
* surgical time is short;
* bleeding is minimal;
* very little scaring;
* requires short or no hospitalization;
* fast recovery.
Anesthesia, general anesthesia, or subdural anesthesia is applied. Three to four incisions, approximately 0.5-1 cm long, are made in the lower abdomen. Then, operation-specific tools, electronic controls, and the laser are used to operate on the affected area with the guidance of an external viewing monitor, which is connected to the laparoscope.
Though complications are rare, potential risks of laparoscopic surgery may include:
* pelvic infection;
* bleeding from the stitches;
* discharge and infection of the incision;
* internal bleeding;
* damage to internal organs or vessels;
* adhesion formation;
* complications caused by anesthesia.