Allergic Tubulointerstitial Nephritis
* The kidney tissue becomes inflamed due to an allergic reaction. This allergic reaction can occur from medications, infections, or the cause may be unknown.
* Flank pain
* Blood in urine
* Low or high urine output
* Swelling due to fluid overload can occur in any area of the body (i.e., face, legs, abdomen)
* Lethargy, confusion, or even Coma can occur
* Drug reactions -- the most common cause:
1. Antibiotics (e.g., penicillin, sulfonamides, etc.) -- are the most prevalent cause
2. Thiazide diuretics
5. Cimetidine (Tagamet)
6. Phenytoin (Dilantin)
7. Anti-inflammatories (such as ibuprofen)
* Bacterial infections
* Viral infections
* Idiopathic (unknown causes)
HOW THE DIAGNOSIS IS MADE
* Laboratory Tests:
1. Elevated blood eosinophils
2. Urinalysis may show red blood cells, white blood cells, white blood cell casts, protein, and eosinophils.
1. Ultrasound of kidneys
2. Gallium scanning
* Kidney biopsy may be considered if diagnosis is unclear.
* Discontinuance of an offending medication
* Treatment of an underlying infection
* Kidney dialysis may be required in a severe case.
* Corticosteroid medications may be considered.
* Kidney Cancer
* Kidney Stones
* Post-streptococcal Glomerulonephritis
* Glomerulonephritis -- general
* Bladder Cancer